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Українські легенди

Introduction Canada
A land of vast distances and rich natural resources, Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867 while retaining ties to the British crown. Economically and technologically the nation has developed in parallel with the US, its neighbor to the south across an unfortified border. Canada's paramount political problem is meeting public demands for quality improvements in health care and education services after a decade of budget cuts. The issue of reconciling Quebec's francophone heritage with the majority anglophone Canadian population has moved to the back burner in recent years; support for separatism abated after the Quebec government's referendum on independence failed to pass in October of 1995.

Geography Canada
Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the conterminous US
Geographic coordinates:
60 00 N, 95 00 W
Map references:
North America
total: 9,984,670 sq km
land: 9,093,507 sq km
water: 891,163 sq km
Area - comparative:
somewhat larger than the US
Land boundaries:
total: 8,893 km
border countries: US 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska)
202,080 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
varies from temperate in south to subarctic and arctic in north
mostly plains with mountains in west and lowlands in southeast
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m
Natural resources:
iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 4.96%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 95.02% (2001)
Irrigated land:
7,200 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
continuous permafrost in north is a serious obstacle to development; cyclonic storms form east of the Rocky Mountains, a result of the mixing of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and produce most of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains
Environment - current issues:
air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting on agricultural and forest productivity; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
second-largest country in world (after Russia); strategic location between Russia and US via north polar route; approximately 90% of the population is concentrated within 160 km of the US border
People Canada
32,805,041 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 17.9% (male 3,016,032/female 2,869,244)
15-64 years: 68.9% (male 11,357,425/female 11,244,356)
65 years and over: 13.2% (male 1,842,496/female 2,475,488) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 38.54 years
male: 37.54 years
female: 39.56 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
0.9% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
10.84 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
7.73 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
5.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 4.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
male: 5.21 deaths/1,000 live births
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 80.1 years
male: 76.73 years
female: 83.63 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.61 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
56,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,500 (2003 est.)
noun: Canadian(s)
adjective: Canadian
Ethnic groups:
British Isles origin 28%, French origin 23%, other European 15%, Amerindian 2%, other, mostly Asian, African, Arab 6%, mixed background 26%
Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 36%, other 18%
note: based on the 1991 census
English 59.3% (official), French 23.2% (official), other 17.5%
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97% (1986 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%
Government Canada
Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Canada
Government type:
confederation with parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
10 provinces and 3 territories*; Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon Territory*
1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (independence recognized)
National holiday:
Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
17 April 1982 (Constitution Act); originally, the machinery of government was set up in the British North America Act of 1867; charter of rights and unwritten customs
Legal system:
based on English common law, except in Quebec, where civil law system based on French law prevails; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by Governor General Adrienne CLARKSON (since 7 October 1999)
elections: none; the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the advice of the prime minister for a five-year term; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition in the House of Commons is automatically designated prime minister by the governor general
head of government: Prime Minister Paul MARTIN (since 12 December 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Anne MCLELLAN (since 12 December 2003)
cabinet: Federal Ministry chosen by the prime minister from among the members of his own party sitting in Parliament
Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (members appointed by the governor general with the advice of the prime minister and serve until reaching 75 years of age; its normal limit is 105 senators) and the House of Commons or Chambre des Communes (308 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote to serve for up to five-year terms)
elections: House of Commons - last held 28 June 2004 (next to be held by NA 2009)
election results: House of Commons - percent of vote by party - Liberal Party 36.7%, Conservative Party 29.6%, New Democratic Party 15.7%, Bloc Quebecois 12.4%, Greens 4.3%, independents 0.4%, other 0.9%; seats by party - Liberal Party 134, Conservative Party 99, Bloc Quebecois 54, New Democratic Party 19, independent 2
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court of Canada (judges are appointed by the prime minister through the governor general); Federal Court of Canada; Federal Court of Appeal; Provincial Courts (these are named variously Court of Appeal, Court of Queens Bench, Superior Court, Supreme Court, and Court of Justice)
Political parties and leaders:
Bloc Quebecois [Gilles DUCEPPE]; Conservative Party of Canada (a merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party) [Stephen HARPER]; Green Party [Jim HARRIS]; Liberal Party [Paul MARTIN]; New Democratic Party [Jack LAYTON]
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Francis Joseph MCKENNA
chancery: 501 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20001
FAX: [1] (202) 682-7726
telephone: [1] (202) 682-1740
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Buffalo, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Los Angeles, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Phoenix, San Diego, and Seattle
consulate(s): Anchorage, Houston, Philadelphia, Princeton, Raleigh, San Francisco, and San Jose
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Paul CELLUCCI
embassy: 490 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 1G8
mailing address: P. O. Box 5000, Ogdensburgh, NY 13669-0430
telephone: [1] (613) 238-5335, 4470
FAX: [1] (613) 688-3082
consulate(s) general: Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Quebec, Toronto, Vancouver, Winnipeg
Flag description:
two vertical bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width), with white square between them; an 11-pointed red maple leaf is centered in the white square; the official colors of Canada are red and white
Anthem Canada
The National Anthem of Canada

O Canada! - The National Anthem of Canada

Calixa Lavallée, a pianist and composer, was asked in early 1880 to write music for a national song to be performed at the French-Canadian National Festival. After the music was written, the festival president Ernest Gagnon asked Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier to write appropriate words for this new composition. It is also a fact that Gagnon suggested the first line to Routhier "O Canada, terre des nos aieux". Even before its first public performance, the Quebec press proclaimed: "at last we have a truly French-Canadian National Song".
Although originally intended for French-Canadians, it became popular all over the country and accepted as a national song. Following the first English performance in Toronto in 1901 there have been several English texts, the most widely used being the version by Mr. Justice Robert Stanley Weir written in 1908. The French lyrics remain unaltered from Sir Routhier's version. In almost all instances, just the first verse is sung. Even though this song was written in 1880, it was not until July 1, 1980 that Parliament proclaimed this tune as Canada's official national anthem.

listen the anthemThe National Anthem of Canada (Listen)

O Canada!
Our home and native land!
True patriot love in all thy sons command.
With glowing hearts we see thee rise,
The True North strong and free!
From far and wide, O Canada,
We stand on guard for thee.
God keep our land glorious and free!
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.
O Canada, we stand on guard for thee.

"God Save the Queen" - The Royal Anthem of Canada

The words and music to this anthem have been attributed to a Dr. Henry Carey in 1740. This fact is heavily disputed. However, its first famous performance was on September 28, 1745 at Drury Lane Theatre in London when the Young Pretender to the British Throne, Prince Charles Edward Stuart, had just defeated the army of King George II at Prestonpans, near Edinburgh. In a fit of patriotic fervour after news of Prestonpans had reached London, the leader of the band at the Drury Lane Theatre, arranged God Save The King for performance after a play. It was a tremendous success and was repeated nightly thereafter. This practice soon spread to other theatres, and the custom of greeting the Monarch with the song as he or she entered a place of public entertainment was thus established.
As the Royal Anthem of Canada, it is performed officially in Canada in the presence of members of the Royal Family but is not sung when played as a salute, only when used as the national anthem of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, or as a hymn or prayer. The Salute accorded to the Governor General and Lieutenant Governors is a combination of O Canada! and God Save the Queen. As with O Canada!, in almost all instances - even in the United Kingdom, just the first verse is sung.

listen the anthem"God Save the Queen" (Listen)

God save our gracious Queen!
Long live our noble Queen!
God save the Queen!
Send her victorious,
Happy and glorious,
Long to reign over us,
God save the Queen!

Maple Leaf Forever

Alexander Muir's 1867 up-the-Empire standard, which was Canada's unofficial national anthem until the arrival of O Canada, has new lyrics. The updated, politically sensitive Maple Leaf Forever, with lyrics by Romanian émigré Vladimir Radian, received its first full orchestral treatment on June 27, 1997 at a free concert by the Toronto Symphony Orchestra.
Radian, a mathematician turned songwriter/actor/poet, came to Canada a decade ago, completely unaware of Maple Leaf Forever and its crowing lyrics. He discovered the song while listening to CBC Radio's Metro Morning show in Toronto when it ran a contest to replace the old lyrics, which were distasteful to some ears and merely comical to others.

listen the anthem"Maple Leaf Forever" (Listen)

O, land of blue unending skies,
Mountains strong and sparkling snow,
A scent of freedom in the wind,
O'er the emerald fields below.

To thee we brought our hopes, our dreams,
For thee we stand together,
Our land of peace, where proudly flies,
The Maple Leaf forever.

Long may it wave, and grace our own,
Blue skies and stormy weather,
Within my heart, above my home,
The Maple Leaf forever!

Economy Canada
Economy - overview:
As an affluent, high-tech industrial society, newly entered in the trillion dollar class, Canada closely resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and affluent living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban. The 1989 US-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (which includes Mexico) touched off a dramatic increase in trade and economic integration with the US. Given its great natural resources, skilled labor force, and modern capital plant Canada enjoys solid economic prospects. Solid fiscal management has produced a long-term budget surplus which is substantially reducing the national debt, although public debate continues over how to manage the rising cost of the publicly funded healthcare system. Exports account for roughly a third of GDP. Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with its principal trading partner, the United States, which absorbs more than 85% of Canadian exports.
purchasing power parity - $1.023 trillion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
2.4% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $31,500 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 2.3%
industry: 26.4%
services: 71.3% (2004 est.)
revenues: $151 billion
expenditures: $144 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
NA (2004 est.)
Canadian dollar (CAD)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
Canadian dollars per US dollar - 1.301 (2004), 1.4011 (2003), 1.5693 (2002), 1.5488 (2001), 1.4851 (2000)
Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March
Communications Canada
Telephones - main lines in use:
19,950,900 (2003)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
13,221,800 (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: excellent service provided by modern technology
domestic: domestic satellite system with about 300 earth stations
international: country code - 1-xxx; 5 coaxial submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (4 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean) and 2 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
3,210,081 (2003)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
760 (2000 est.)
Internet users:
16.11 million (2002)
Transportation Canada
total: 48,909 km
standard gauge: 48,909 km 1.435-m gauge (2003)
total: 1,408,800 km
paved: 497,306 km (including 16,900 km of expressways)
unpaved: 911,494 km (2002)
631 km
note: Saint Lawrence Seaway of 3,769 km, including the Saint Lawrence River of 3,058 km, shared with United States (2003)
crude and refined oil 23,564 km; liquid petroleum gas 74,980 km (2003)
Ports and harbors:
Becancour (Quebec), Churchill, Halifax, Hamilton, Montreal, New Westminster, Prince Rupert, Quebec, Saint John (New Brunswick), St. John's (Newfoundland), Sept Isles, Sydney, Trois-Rivieres, Thunder Bay, Toronto, Vancouver, Windsor
1,326 (2004 est.)
12 (2004 est.)
Transnational Issues Canada
Disputes - international:
managed maritime boundary disputes with the US at Dixon Entrance, Beaufort Sea, Strait of Juan de Fuca, and around the disputed Machias Seal Island and North Rock; working toward greater cooperation with US in monitoring people and commodities crossing the border; uncontested sovereignty dispute with Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Ellesmere Island and Greenland
Illicit drugs:
illicit producer of cannabis for the domestic drug market and export to US; use of hydroponics technology permits growers to plant large quantities of high-quality marijuana indoors; transit point for heroin and cocaine entering the US market; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering because of its mature financial services sector
See also: Canadian Embassies

See also: Foreign Embassies in Canada

See also: Canadian Embassies

See also: The Articles About Canada
See also: The National Anthem of Canada


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